|Streets and districts | Streets of old Simbirsk|
The architectural appearance of Simbirsk began to form after the conflagration of 1864. After the city rebuilding, on the 10th of September 1887 was approved new plan of Simbirsk. According to the plan, the borders of the city would broaden further to the north, were planned new boulevards and gardens, cemeteries were removed from the city boundaries.
The first public garden in Simbirsk was laid out in Karamzinskaya square, where in 1845 was placed a monument to the great Russian historian. Then two more public gardens were arranged - Vladimirsky (now Y.M. Sverdlov Park) and Nikolaevsky Park, around Nikolaevsky Cathedral. The western part of this park was given to the use of the gymnasium.
It turned out that by the middle of the 19th century streets in Simbirsk didn't have names. At least, they were not legally assigned. Only after the conflagration of 1864 and approval of the city plan in 1866 it was prescribed to "make and nail down, where it is necessary, name boards with the names of streets and squares".
In Bolshaya Saratovskaya St. and in Venets were established boulevards. But considerable part of the city territory was occupied with fruit gardens and amounted to 150 dessiatinas ( = approx. 2 3/4 acres), or 15% of the whole city territory.
At that time the city could be divided into three parts, which sharply differed from each other, namely: nobleman, trade, and bourgeois.
The best and the riches part was, of course, the nobleman part. It includes the space between Verkhniaya Naberezhnaya and Bolshaya Saratovskaya Street, and also Moskovskaya, Pokrovskaya and Lisinaya Sreets.
The governor's house in the center of the city Simbirsk citizens called "palace", because there stayed the emperors - Alexander I, Nikolay I, Alexander II - during their visits to the region, and the street that leaded to the building, was named Dvortsovaya (now K.Marksa Street). The trade part of the city included: a part of Bolshaya Saratovskaya St., where was situated gostiny dvor (row of trade stalls), and the whole area beyond the Simbirka River, which included two large squares - Bazarnaya and Yarmarochnaya. In this part was amassed the trade part of the city, there also lived the majority of merchant class.
Торговую часть города составляли: часть Большой Саратовской улицы, занимаемой гостиным двором и вся местность за рекой Симбиркой, включающая в себя две большие площади - Базарную и Ярмарочную. В этой части сосредотачивалась торговая часть города, там же жила и большая часть купечества.
Bolshaya Saratovskaya St. started from so called Baranjya Slobodka (in former times so was called the beginning of Minaeva St., and also the square, where now is situated a monument in honor of Ulyanovsk warriors who had died in the Great Patriotic War). Here, among many other, was situated a theater, which, according to the words of writer V.Sologub, had been "not large, but built smartly; two rows of boxes, parterre, places beyond the stalls - everywhere was clean".
Bolshaya Soldatskaya St. (now Minaeva St) was called so, because the first settlers here were soldiers, who had got plots of ground, going down the slope to the Sviayazhsky Pond. Untill 1965 this street was built on with one-storied plain houses.
Bourgeois, the poorest part of the city, consisted of its outskirts: "Brick sheds" in the north, in the west were Bolshaya and Malaya Konnaya Streets, and also other streets, bordered upon the Sviyaga, in the south - the outskirts " Tut' ", in the east - the part of the city in the foot of a hill.
One of the oldest streets of the city - Moskovskaya Street (now Lenina St.), has its origin almost from Simbirsk foundation. Everything began from Voznesenskaya Tower of Simbirsk Kremlin. Near the tower, along the road, soon were built houses, and then another, they were arranged in order.
In a short time the street was called Bolshaya Sviyazhskaya. In 1967 Bolshaya Sviyazhskaya St. was granted civic rights and was referred to as one of the main streets of the city. Older than this street were only Panskaya, Cheboksarskaya and Kazanskaya Streets. In the course of time the street, which went from the Kremlin to the west, to a capital, was renamed to Moskovskaya. At the end of 19th century in it were reckoned 833 housing estates.
In the building on the crossroad of Bolshaya Saratovskaya St. and Moskovskaya St. in 1812 was born I.A. Goncharov. The street remembered also the stay of the royal persons. Thus, in 1824 sovereign emperor Alexander I entered Simbirsk and accompanied by his retinue and city administration made his way along Moskovskaya St. to the very center - Sobornaya Square.
In 1863 representatives of the citizens at the gates in the Sviyaga welcomed Nikolay I. Severe emperor was touched by a solemn welcome. All citizens, first of all those who lived in Moskovskaya St., remembered how the tsar came along the whole street to the center on foot.
As well as other streets, Moskovskaya St. periodically underwent conflagrations. In 1864 the upper part of the city, which went from Ovrazhny Lane, burnt down.
New milestone in the history of Old Moskovskaya St. was connected with removal to this place of Ulyanov's family. By 1912 the street was one of four best streets and was asphalted. In the evenings lamplighters regularly turned on the lights. Along Moskovskaya St. were situated posts with wires, and worked a telegraph line.
Moskovskaya St. went up from the Sviyaga. On the left of it was seen a ravine of the Simbirka River, and on the other bank of it - Bolshaya Konnaya Street, which leaded to Yarmarochnaya Square. Around Yarmarochnaya Square was situated the majority of inns, hotels, public bars of Simbirsk.
Times went by, but the citizens as before were proud of their street: "Moskovskaya - is not some zastennaya, Sirotskaya, Shatalnaya or, God forbid, Dog's lane". Not a one decade had come, and in Lenin Street was situated historic-memorial reserve. Numerous museums remind us about old residents of the city and their way of life.